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Heat training

On today’s #ScienceFriday we are dealing with the topic of heat training. Which physiological effects can we expect and from what duration can we expect the first effects? If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact us!  

Implementation of heat training:

  • 10 – 14 days for optimal and complete acclimatisation (1,2)
  • Temperature: >33℃
  • For adaption: about 60 minutes per day (6)

Positive adaptations through heat training:

  • Optimization of the metabolism ↑ (3, 4)
  • Heat tolerance ↑
  • Heart rate ↓ (7)
  • Body temperature ↓

Positive adaptations:

  • Maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) ↑ (3, 4)
  • Blood circulation ↑ (7)
  • Fluid balance ↑ 
  • Sweat production ↑
  • Low HF and body temperature during a workout → declining rate of 2.5 % /day (5)
  • After 2 weeks without heat exposure: about 35% of the adaptation is lost 

Important to note:

  • Monitor your fluid loss!
    • Difference of > 2% bodyweight → reduction of aerobic performance up to 6% (8)
  • Heat training can cause overheating 

Sources

  1. Periard, J.D., Travers, G.J.S., Racinais, S., & Sawka, M.N. (2016). Cardiovascular adaptations supporting human exercise-heat acclimation. Autonomic Neuroscience, 196, 52–62. PubMed ID: 26905458 doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2016.02.002.
  2. Tyler, C.J., Reeve, T., Hodges, G.J., & Cheung, S.S. (2016). The effects of heat adaptation on physiology, perception and exercise performance in the heat: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(11), 1699–1724. PubMed ID: 27106556 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0538-5.
  3. Lorenzo, S., Halliwill, J.R., Sawka, M.N., & Minson, C.T. (2010). Heat acclimation improves exercise performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(4), 1140–1147. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00495.2010.
  4. Corbett, J., Neal, R.A., Lunt, H.C., & Tipton, M.J. (2014). Adaptation to heat and exercise performance under cooler conditions: A new hot topic. Sports Medicine,44(10), 1323–1331. PubMed ID: 24943043 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0212-8.
  5. Daanen, H.A.M., Racinais, S., & Periard, J.D. (2018). Heat acclimation decay and re-induction: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(2), 409–430. doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0808-x.
  6. Racinais, S., Alonso, J. M., Coutts, A. J., Flouris, A. D., Girard, O., González‐Alonso, J., … & Nassis, G. P. (2015). Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 25, 6-19.
  7.  Périard, J. D., Racinais, S., & Sawka, M. N. (2015). Adaptations and mechanisms of human heat acclimation: applications for competitive athletes and sports. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 25, 20-38.
  8. Calder, A. (2003). Recovery strategies for sports performance. USOC Olympic Coach E-Magazine, 15(3), 8-11